[192] The associated triple divide points are Commissary Ridge North, Wyoming,[197] and Sproats Meadow Northwest, Oregon. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet (820 m) above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters. Canadian National Parks in the watershed include Kootenay National Park, Yoho National Park, Glacier National Park, and Mount Revelstoke National Park. Upstream in the headwaters, salmon runs are the main source of nutrients. The Willamette River channel is 43 feet deep up to approximately river mile 2, from that point the controlling [71], Some historians believe that Japanese or Chinese vessels blown off course reached the Northwest Coast long before Europeans—possibly as early as 219 BCE. Columbia River Pasco to Richland . A 1798 British map showed a dotted line connecting the Columbia with the Missouri. Also expect flooding of parks and lowland areas near the Sandy River confluence above this level. Of the 227 major dams in the Columbia River drainage basin, the four Washington dams on the lower Snake River are often identified for removal,[162] for example in an ongoing lawsuit concerning a Bush administration plan for salmon recovery. The Columbia River is magnificent! There are 35 species of fish, of which four are endemic. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume[note 1], the Columbia has the greatest flow of any river entering the Pacific[note 2] and the 36th greatest of any river in the world. From 1944 to 1971, pump systems drew cooling water from the river and, after treating this water for use by the reactors, returned it to the river. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns sharply south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. The states, Indian tribes, and federal government are all engaged in efforts to restore and improve the water, land, and air quality of the Columbia River drainage basin and have committed to work together to enhance and accomplish critical ecosystem restoration efforts. Gray's fur trading mission had been financed by Boston merchants, who outfitted him with a private vessel named Columbia Rediviva; he named the river after the ship on May 18. The hope that the British colonists might dilute the American presence in the valley failed in the face of the overwhelming number of American settlers. PROVISIONAL DATA SUBJECT TO REVISION . Screen captures of the on-line viewable charts available here do NOT fulfill chart carriage requirements for regulated commercial vessels under Titles 33 and 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Get Quote Call (541) 357-6577 Get directions WhatsApp (541) 357-6577 Message (541) 357-6577 Contact Us Find Table Make Appointment Place Order View Menu. Projections for the coming decades assume growth throughout the watershed, including the interior. In 1891 the Columbia was dredged to enhance shipping. River development occurred within the structure of the 1909 International Boundary Waters Treaty between the US and Canada. The Grand Coulee Dam was the project's central component; upon completion, it pumped water up from the Columbia to fill the formerly dry Grand Coulee, forming Banks Lake. A navigation channel reaching to Lewiston, Idaho, along the Columbia and Snake rivers, was completed in 1975. [36] It has been suggested that if the later dates are accurate there may be a link with the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. [180][181], Nutrients dynamics vary in the river basin from the headwaters to the main river and dams, to finally reaching the Columbia River estuary and ocean. Print on Demand NOAA Nautical Chart Map 18543, Columbia River Pasco to Richland Fourteen farms in the area have gone through the permitting process to build such dams legally. . The river defines that border for the final 309 miles (497 km) of its journey. [196] To the south, in Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, the Columbia watershed is divided from the Great Basin, whose several watersheds are endorheic, not emptying into any ocean but rather drying up or sinking into sumps. [139][140][141] Downriver of Grand Coulee, each dam's reservoir is closely regulated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and various Washington public utility districts to ensure flow, flood control, and power generation objectives are met. [160] The Northwest Power Planning Council approved a plan that provided more water for fish and less for electricity, irrigation, and transportation. Many of the challenges associated with that feat remain today; even with modern engineering alterations to the mouth of the river, the strong currents and shifting sandbar make it dangerous to pass between the river and the Pacific Ocean. [71][158] In the winter of 1994, the return of coho salmon far exceeded expectations, which was attributed in part to the fishing ban. [97] Jetties, first constructed in 1886,[92] extend the river's channel into the ocean. Anyone who is interested in visiting North Channel Columbia River can print the free topographic map and street map using the link above. [170] Nearby aquifers contain an estimated 270 billion US gallons (1 billion m3) of groundwater contaminated by high-level nuclear waste that has leaked out of Hanford's underground storage tanks. Natural processes in the system include estuarine mixing of fresh and ocean waters, and climate variability patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (both climatic cycles that affect the amount of regional snowpack and river discharge). The Snake is by far the largest tributary. It is exceeded in discharge on the continent only by the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Mackenzie rivers. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River completely breach the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range also originate in or very near the mountains. The Columbia alone possesses one-third of the United States's hydroelectric potential. He considered it a bay, and called it Ensenada de Asunción (Assumption Cove). [81] Gray's discovery of the Columbia River was later used by the United States to support its claim to the Oregon Country, which was also claimed by Russia, Great Britain, Spain and other nations. Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in North America,[186] and the Columbia Gorge are in the watershed. [41], Humans have inhabited the Columbia's watershed for more than 15,000 years, with a transition to a sedentary lifestyle based mainly on salmon starting about 3,500 years ago. [109] The project's cost is estimated at $150 million. Increasingly, hydro-power operations are required to meet standards under the US Endangered Species Act and other agreements to manage operations to minimize impacts on salmon and other fish, and some conservation and fishing groups support removing four dams on the lower Snake River, the largest tributary of the Columbia. A number of cleanup efforts are currently underway, including Superfund projects at Portland Harbor, Hanford, and Lake Roosevelt. The Nez Perce and Cayuse kept large herds and made annual long-distance trips to the Great Plains for bison hunting, adopted the plains culture to a significant degree, and became the main conduit through which horses and the plains culture diffused into the Columbia River region. The Columbia Unglaciated ecoregion makes up the rest of the watershed. [171] As of 2008[update], 1 million US gallons (3,785 m3) of highly radioactive waste is traveling through groundwater toward the Columbia River. The highest population densities are found west of the Cascade Mountains along the I-5 corridor, especially in the Portland-Vancouver urban area. Glorious Temple of the Information Age! Research in the mid-1980s found that juvenile salmon were suffering substantially from the predatory pikeminnow,[153] and in 1990, in the interest of protecting salmon, a "bounty" program was established to reward anglers for catching pikeminnow. [13], The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest, then through Priest Rapids Dam, and then through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. [68] Celilo was the oldest continuously inhabited community on the North American continent. [6] Its drainage basin covers nearly all of Idaho, large portions of British Columbia, Oregon, and Washington, ultimately all of Montana west of the Continental Divide, and small portions of Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada; the total area is similar to the size of France. Entirely within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river that is completely free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups. What are Nautical Charts? [65] The annual catch by natives has been estimated at 42 million pounds (19,000 t). [26] The lower reaches of the ancestral river passed through a valley near where Mount Hood later arose. [130], The Columbia's heavy flow and large elevation drop over a short distance, 2.16 feet per mile (40.9 cm/km), give it tremendous capacity for hydroelectricity generation. Additional Data and Information.--Station data inventory. The Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. River. To the northeast, mostly along the southern border between British Columbia and Alberta, the Continental Divide separates the Columbia watershed from the Nelson-Lake Winnipeg-Saskatchewan watershed, which empties into Hudson Bay. [163] Historically, the Snake produced over 1.5 million spring and summer Chinook salmon, a number that has dwindled to several thousand in recent years. These include chemical pesticides, bacteria, arsenic, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). [47] The river is known as swah'netk'qhu by the Sinixt people, who live in the area of the Arrow Lakes in the river's upper reaches in Canada. [93][94] Steamboats operated in several distinct stretches of the river: on its lower reaches, from the Pacific Ocean to Cascades Rapids; from the Cascades to Celilo Falls; from Celilo to the confluence with the Snake River; on the Wenatchee Reach of eastern Washington; on British Columbia's Arrow Lakes; and on tributaries like the Willamette, the Snake and Kootenay Lake. This chart display or derived product can be used as a planning or analysis tool and may not be used as a navigational aid. [119], In the 1960s, the United States and Canada signed the Columbia River Treaty, which focused on flood control and the maximization of downstream power generation. Chart of the Lower Columbia River. [187] Within the watershed are diverse landforms including mountains, arid plateaus, river valleys, rolling uplands, and deep gorges. High densities are also found around Spokane, Washington, and Boise, Idaho. To the west and southwest the Columbia watershed borders a number of smaller watersheds that drain to the Pacific Ocean, such as the Klamath River in Oregon and California and the Puget Sound Basin in Washington.[192]. [165] Other Columbia Basin dams that have been removed include Condit Dam on Washington's White Salmon River, and the Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork in Montana. Sparked by the 1848 Whitman Massacre, a number of violent battles were fought between American settlers and the region's natives. [59] Natives drew fish from the Columbia at several major sites, which also served as trading posts. Book the Best Western Plus Columbia River Hotel and Conference Center near shops, dining, and parks. In the month he spent traveling the region Guthrie wrote 26 songs, which have become an important part of the cultural history of the region. American captain Robert Gray and British captain George Vancouver, who explored the river in 1792, proved that it was possible to cross the Columbia Bar. The National Ocean Service observes water levels at six tide gauges and issues tide forecasts for twenty-two additional locations along the river between the entrance at the North Jetty and the base of Bonneville Dam, the head of tide. Today, ocean freighters can travel upriver as far as Portland and Vancouver, and barges can reach as far inland as Lewiston, Idaho.[18]. [12] The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence, then southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington. Evidence exists that Spanish castaways reached the shore in 1679 and traded with the Clatsop; if these were the first Europeans to see the Columbia, they failed to send word home to Spain. The bridge, which aligns with geological records of the Bonneville Slide, was described in some stories as the result of a battle between gods, represented by Mount Adams and Mount Hood, in their competition for the affection of a goddess, represented by Mount St. Since the late 19th century, public and private sectors have heavily developed the river. High elevations have cold winters and short cool summers; interior regions are subject to great temperature variability and severe droughts. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, and the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. [146] White sturgeon, which take 15 to 25 years to mature, typically migrate between the ocean and the upstream habitat several times during their lives. The Columbia is a cold, powerful river that has claimed lives. Updates . [113] One of its major undertakings was building Grand Coulee Dam to provide irrigation for the 600 thousand acres (2,400 km2) of the Columbia Basin Project in central Washington. During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. Circuit Court of Appeals in August 2006. PASCO, Wash. -- A mechanical issue led to a train dumping hundreds of gallons of fuel across the Tri-Cities area, including some into the Columbia River, Department of Ecology officials said Monday. Irrigation began in 1951. [182] Dams along the river impact nutrient cycling by increasing residence time of nutrients, and reducing the transport of silicate to the estuary, which directly impacts diatoms, a type of phytoplankton. A reduced -scale NOAA nautical chart for small boaters When possible, use the full -size NOAA chart for navigation. NOTE: Use the official, full scale NOAA nautical chart for real navigation whenever possible. Grand Teton National Park lies in the watershed, as well as parts of Yellowstone National Park, Glacier National Park, Mount Rainier National Park, and North Cascades National Park. [135], Inexpensive hydropower supported the location of a large aluminum industry in the region, because its reduction from bauxite requires large amounts of electricity. The Pend Oreille River system (including its main tributaries, the Clark Fork and Flathead rivers) is also similar in size to the Columbia at their confluence. [174], Timber industry activity further contaminates river water, for example in the increased sediment runoff that results from clearcuts. The city of Richland is the furthest west of the Tri-Cities. [195], To the southeast, in western Wyoming, another divide separates the Columbia watershed from the Colorado–Green watershed, which empties into the Gulf of California. This river may have been shaped by God, or glaciers, or the remnants of the inland sea, or gravity or a combination of all, but the Army Corps of Engineers controls it now. By 1957, the eight plutonium production reactors at Hanford dumped a daily average of 50,000 curies of radioactive material into the Columbia. The Columbia's highest recorded flow, measured at The Dalles, was 1,240,000 cubic feet per second (35,000 m3/s) in June 1894, before the river was dammed. [32] Constrictions at several places caused the floodwaters to pool into large temporary lakes, such as Lake Lewis, in which sediments were deposited. [183] The Columbia River estuary exports high rates of nutrients into the Pacific Ocean;[184] with the exception of nitrogen, which is delivered into the estuary by ocean upwelling sources. [121], Today the main stem of the Columbia River has 14 dams, of which three are in Canada and 11 in the US. The contact would prove devastating to the Indian tribes; a large portion of their population was wiped out by a smallpox epidemic. [6] The average flow where the river crosses the international border between Canada and the United States is 99,000 cubic feet per second (2,790 m3/s) from a drainage basin of 39,700 square miles (102,800 km2). [117], In 1948 floods swept through the Columbia watershed, destroying Vanport, then the second largest city in Oregon, and impacting cities as far north as Trail, British Columbia. Specifications (Click to expand): ITEM # LOCATION SCALE CHT18520 Yaquina Head to Columbia River 1:185238 CHT18523 Harrington Point to Crims Island 1:40000 CHT18524 Crims Island to Saint Helens 1:40000 CHT18525 Saint Helens to Vancouver 1:40000 CHT18526 Activities at Hanford produced significant quantities of waste containing hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. 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