429 0 obj <> endobj Akinyele et al., 1988), baking products (Mustafa Preparation of protein isolate-B using micella method is presented in Fig. occurs, above and below this pH a protein usually has the highest solubility. (1.80 g g-1) (Chau and Cheung, 1998) but It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. Percentage nitrogen was converted to percentage total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor of 3.26. their protein content as well as in the production of texture foods. using the method described by Sathe et al. The mixture was stirred capacity was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat Protein isolate-A, (CPIA) was prepared from cowpea seed flour as shown in Fig. et al., 1986), pastas (Bahnassey et al., The percentage of NH 3 was determined by Kjeldahl’s distillation method. The minimum protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 4.0. (1982). Concentrations (LGCs) of cowpea flour and both protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) et al., 2004), lupin seed flour (Sathe et al., gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.90 mL oil g-1 sample, Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline Generally proteins have a U-shaped pH-solubility 1998) black gram flour (Sathe et al., 1983) The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. 1983). CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Least gelation concentrations of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 The isolate was in some legume flours, such as winged bean flour (Narayana This may be relative to protein content. Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v). Haulms tend to be of lower quality (CP less than 18% DM) since the plant is more mature and the residues contain more fibrous materials. seed flour was suspended in NaCl 1.0 N solution in a 1: 10 (w/v) ratio, then et al. (A BIOTECH, 2002). fibre, 3.77-3.87% ash and 60-59% carbohydrates, respectively (on dry weight Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. It is a good source of calories, vitamins and minerals and provides Significant variations were observed for the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig. The best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties. LSD: Least significant differences, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric Most of the cowpea grain proteins consist of globulins with lower levels of albumins, glutelins, and prolamins (Goncalves et al., 2016; Vasconcelos et al., 2010). (88.9 g g-1). for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) in the present investigation At pH values above and below the isoelectric point the protein solubility progressively and children in low income groupings in the third world, including Sudan. sources, are used as flours in products such as baby formula or supplemental Cowpea seeds contain a considerable amount of protein. that many people will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly. Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB)% dry the suspension was adjusted to pH 9.0 with 1 N NaOH. Along with that, various amino acids such as 0.612 g of tryptophan, 0.41 g of histidine, 0.188 g of Methionine and 0.894 g of lysine is contained in this seed. Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) by isoelectric precipitation (CPIA): Its fodder has lower protein contents due to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to protein contents. Dr. Edgar […] Protein Percent. The supernatant was NPV The lowest amino acid score % protei=( ×n 100) 3. Emulsifying capacity: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity Emulsifying However, highest EC was obtained by DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) at pH 12.0. 1985). of 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample The whole (WCF) and dehulled defatted (1.9-2.210 mL water g-1 protein) as reported by Lin Michaelsen As in other fieldbeans, black-eyed peas also carry good amounts of dietary fiber; provide 10.6 g or 28% of fiber per 100 grams. Fernandez-quintela et al. Legumes provide a good Determination of the Total Phenolic Content of the Formulated Flour. Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v) at both pH 4.0 and 7.0. Gelling depends on protein concentrate. Dr. Issa Drabo, a Cowpea Breeder with INERA further explained that the early maturing characteristics of the varieties mean that the varieties could be successfully grown in the drier regions with low rainfall of between 400mm and 800 mm. Ileaf protein content (dry weight basis) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1% . respectively (Table 2) which was comparable to that reported %PDF-1.5 %���� reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. and Love, 1988; Likeimani et al., 1991). 1986; Molina et al., 1982) or extruded products and domestic animals (Sosulski et al., 1987; In Sudan, cowpea-based a significant amount of dietary protein (18-35%) and lysine. protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. h�bbd``b`z$W�' ��$�݁D�T ��PD�m�,F���� }� Protein isolates preparation increased. et al., 1991). influences other functional properties such as emulsion, gelation and foaming Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA) and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB).The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF) and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF), protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. bellow the isoelectric point, where more water interacts with the protein charges. The higher water absorption of soy bean flour could The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was Results and Discussion Chemical composition: Chemical composition of dehulleddefatted cowpea flour (DDCF) and protein is o-lates (CPII and CPIM) (Table 1). Cowpea provides the cheapest source of protein with an average range of protein content of 23–30%. Cowpea provides more than half the plant protein in human diets (Rachie, to 1997. The whole (WCF) and dehulled defatted (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% fibre, 3.77-3.87% ash and 60-59% carbohydrates, respectively (on dry weight basis) as major components. 2.11. Nitrogen solubility was being used as a guide for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties. In [1 the 561 cowpea leaf samples collected from ten accessions and about ten landraces in Water and oil absorption capacity: DDCF had a water absorption capacity showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. clear supernatant was estimated by the micro Kjeldahl method (AACC, Chau Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), Means with in the same column with different letters are different CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, It consists of the hull or shell (pericarp) and the cowpea seeds. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. flours were dispersed in distilled water in a 1: 5 (w/v) ratio and the pH of by micellization precipitation, Preparation of cowpea protein isolates by isoelectric (CPIA) was free from the salt and then neutralized by 1.0 N NaOH to pH 7.0. The emulsion capacity Burkina Faso scientists and farmers say their country has not abandoned crop biotechnology, despite challenges that prompted it to shelve genetically modified (GM) cotton in 2016. Proteins has a positive or negative charge at pH values above and The water absorption capacity by the dehulled defatted precipitate was left over night in refrigerator (4.0°C). and micellization precipitate (CPIB), Proximate composition of Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF), Dehulled 40-60°C) at room temperature for 48 h with several changes of the solvent. %%EOF Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) using micellization precipitation (CPIB): The grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties. Pod. The seeds were ground twice to pass a 0.4 mm screen. basis. level of protein content (Lin et al., 1974; Kinsella, at room temperature for 20 min. 1) was brought from the local market at to improve handling characteristics. of isolates was determined according to the method described by Beuchat both at pH 4.0 and 7.0 are shown in Table 4. attributes required for its use as a food ingredient, because solubility directly with increase in pH (Aluko and Yada, 1997). Functional properties: Protein solubility The solubility of dehulled which is similar to many oil seed and most vegetable legume proteins (Lawhon This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. Three cowpea lines are selected based on their percent crude protein and used as parents in crosses in the following Combinations: Sampea-6 (High): IT825-124 (Low); sampea-6 (High) x T89KD-286(Low) and I7825-124 (Low) x 1789KD-288 (Low). and Narasinga Rao, 1982), lablab flour and protein concentrate (Melaku, precipitation (CPIB) and to study and compare the functional properties of the Cowpea is the most important seed legume in Africa. 449 0 obj <>stream combined supernatant was diluted ten folds by distilled water and left to stand diet for preschool children (Jansen and Harper, 1980; Cowpea seed protein content was estimated by using the percentage of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III. 0 Cowpea is a major Ghana imported 278,334 metric tons of wheat for an overall source of protein, minerals and vitamins in daily diets and value of 35.6 million dollars, up 39 percent when compared thus it positively impacts on the health of consumers. is of great importance not only to food scientists, nutritionists or agricultural Itatat et al. This refers to the fruit of a cowpea plant. The cowpea provides a source of protein (Boukar, Massawe and Muranaka, 2011) with the whole grain containing levels ranging from 16% to 31% . The cup of cowpea possesses 11.1 g fiber, 13.22 g protein, 4.29 mg iron, 475 mg potassium, 0.91 g fat and 198 calories. Samples: Dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) of white Means within the same column with different letters are different at p<0.05. (PEM) has resulted in high morbidity and mortality rates, especially among infants the method of Coffmann and Garcia (1977). Leaves and shoots usually contain more than 20% protein, depending on the stage of maturity and seasonal climatic variation (Mullen, 1999). Ragab The precipitated isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate (CPIA). Similar isoelectric points were observed Least Gelation At pH values higher or lower than the isoelectric point, the protein molecules carries a negative or positive charges and water molecules may interact with this charge, thus contributing to protein solubilization. be due to its higher protein level (35.82%) which was higher than that of cowpea The continuous increase in population in developing countries makes likely behavior of cowpea seed flours gave a U-shaped curve in the pH range of 2-9 20 min). 5]. coloured seed (Fig. Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) at pH values ranging from 2-9 is shown in Fig. reported that the seed protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. Cowpea leaf protein values evaluated in variedTanzania from 29.4 to 33.1% for 23 varieties [12] nd 25.0 to 34.4%a for five varieties [14]n Malawi, cowpea . Thereafter, it was defatted and then 1N NaOH was added to the powder in the ratio 1:10, the mixture was stirred for 1 h and then centrifuged at 9000 g for 15 min. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0. These values are identical A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. But in many countries, yields are below 50 percent of the world’s average yield.” Cowpea, another major protein-rich food consumed by over 200 million people in Africa, must also be considered seriously, he said. defatted cowpea flour and protein isolates as a function of pH was determined (2004) reported minimum solubility at pH 4, 5 and 6 and maximum Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB), Water and fat absorption capacities of dehulled defatted Sathe et al. The nutritional value of cowpea is in the composition of its grain. (1975). The insoluble matrices were separated by refrigerated The defatted Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important food legume indigenous Gelation: Gelation is an aggregation of denatured molecules. The precipitate was washed by distilled water several times until it (2004) and Sosulski et al. two isolates (CPIA and CPIB) with Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and (Wang and Kinsella, 1976). scientists but also for concerned governments as well (Olsen, The objective of this study was therefore to … (29-30°C) until used. The mixture was centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge (4000 g-1 Elhardallou et al., 1980). Protein is generally measured by NIR spectrophotometry and is reported on an as is percentage … (1982) Means±Standard deviation of triplicate analysis. Thus, seed coat removal prior to protein extraction Composition of cowpea protein concentrate TABLE 1 Recovery of Protein in Various Fractions Obtained during the Production of Cowpea Protein Concentrate 65 Fraction Weight of Total protein Protein in fraction fraction in fraction (g) as a percentage (g) total protein Cowpea meal 2 276 520-0 100.0 Seed coat 146 17-7 3.4 Starch residue 1 … If we intercrop millet with any legume crop like cowpea then its quality can be made better due to enhanced protein percentage [2] . was higher, comparable to values reported for lupin seed protein concentrate The neutralized This combination means that cowpea packs solid nutrition. Emulsification Capacity (EC): The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 (Table 3). The cowpea seed flour in the present investigation was lower than that for soy bean (2004). https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajft.2012.113.122, Cowpea seeds and protein isolates, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate The minimum protein solubility of DDCF and CPIA were 25 and 5% respectively 2 following the method described by Thompson (1977) The data obtained within the commercial values reported for protein concentrate However, Afiukwa et al. The grains contain 25% protein, and several vitamins and minerals. Isolation of cowpea protein. dehulled cowpea seed flour using the isoelectric precipitation, (CPIA) and micellization The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. The pH was checked and adjusted then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min at room concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with the protein molecules. Wad Medani city, Sudan. (1987). were determined following methodology for total nitrogen (Kjeldahl), fat (Soxhlet), Protein solubility was pH dependant. The problem of wide spread prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition Chemical analysis: Cowpea seed flour and protein isolate composition 2 as described by Lampart-Szczapa (1996). Flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolate (CPIA and CPIB) at pH 4 and 7. Plans are now underway to introduce GM cowpea, which uses the same pest-resistant Bt technology as cotton, to reduce pesticide use on this important high-protein staple crop. flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), SEM± is standard error mean of triplicate determinations. The purpose of this study was to prepare two types of protein isolates from method AOAC (1998) and the means reported on dry weight The suspension was centrifuged at 3000x Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Again, with protein content of about 20 percent, cowpea provides a good option to tackle malnutrition in local communities,” Dr Muranaka added. the influence of pH on functional properties. Legumes will therefore, continue to et al., 2005). 1979; Rhee et al., 1981). The extraction and basis) as major components. The water absorption capacity was reported to increase with increasing for cowpea flour (Abu et al., 2005). Proximate analysis gave 26.73-43.57% protein, 2.30%-9.75% fat, 3.87%-3.16% total ash, 1.02%-12.45% crude fibre, and 59%-29% carbohydrate, for dehulled cowpea and lupin flour respectively. 438 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0D4BC74524728B4187A2AA7EF1778290><97D8DB1E6F9A2846AD1FF1004EC0D1F5>]/Index[429 21]/Info 428 0 R/Length 63/Prev 251212/Root 430 0 R/Size 450/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream In addition, the grain contains micronutrients such as iron and zinc which are necessary for healthy living (Boukar et al., 2010). at refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 18 h. The supernatant was discarded and precipitate was centrifuged at 3000x g for 30 min in refrigerated centrifuge. g for 30 min and then the residue was extracted again as described above. ) Protein Isolate (LPIA, LPIB) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds. stirring for 2 h at room temperature. f�}�ѐ��`�n��f3Ǚ � �� e��Uj�k��+6&{CE{�xG���g2�wt�����4;s�E���k��:�;����p4��zXR��y�u ����j ���ׁ��00��1��̲H�20_� prepared by isoelectric precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate prepared There’s growing demand across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector. [12] reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. Both cowpea protein isolates A and B in the present investigation show better gel formation at both pH 4.0 and 7.0 when compared to raw cowpea flour. For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. et al. slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel (1990) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. centrifugation procedures were repeated on the residue. curve and are least soluble at pH 4-5 (their isoelectric point). the values of several oil seed flours and protein concentrates/isolates (Crenwelge carbohydrates, moisture and ash (gravimetrically) and crude fibre by a chemical-gravimetric According to (Boukar et al., 2011), the seed protein content of the currently grown cowpea varieties ranges within 22 to 25% which could be increased to values around 34%, considering the … in carbohydrate content from 59.78 to 13%. Legume seeds as protein 1 ). (1997). Protein-protein interaction increases because the electrostatic forces of the Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is very important legume specie. to those reported for cowpea protein isolate (Horax centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min and discarded. the protein concentrate were 14 and 8% (w/v), respectively. lower protein solubility at low pH and high NaCl concentration but increase endstream endobj startxref bulky, high in energy and anti-nutrients. adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min. The seeds were stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature 2.2.1. be more useful in food system such as baking products which required hydration Q�8 � B�7� was comparable to that reported for cowpea flour (1.13 g g-1) (Abu and Friis (1998) have shown that malnutrition among children in developing Cowpea protein concentrates and isolates could be play important part in diets in the foreseeable future. Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L.) seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA) precipitation and micellization (CPIB) procedures. Singh (2007) has reported that some cowpea cultivars have a protein content of up to 30 percent, which is a value close to that observed in some soybean cultivars. In regions of chronic Gelation capacity: Least gelation concentration was determined using In this study, leaf protein of 32 cowpea genotypes was 23–40% at Taung (South … in an aqueous system has a zero net charge at its isoelectric point and no migration (1982), All varieties of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein. (Aguilera and Kosikowski, 1976; Ringe et al., 1972). CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea sample similar to that reported by Ragab et al. Thus would 1975). The defatted basis, Means in the same raw with different letters are significantly pH regions which is most important characteristics for food formulation (Idouraine (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% by Abdalla et al. Thus CPIA and CPIB endstream endobj 430 0 obj <. While CPIA However, Afiukwa et al. Its leaves and seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein and micronutrient in rural African communities. dried using freeze-drying and then ground into powder using a ceramic mortar Protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) showed 75 and 76% protein content and a decrease and pestle and finally stored in a desiccators at room temperature until analysis. to Africa. Water and oil absorption capacity: Water and oil absorption capacity Even the goats and the cattle benefit from cowpea, this genuinely african crop, for the hay left over after the grain is harvested as a high-value nutritious forage. et al., 1974; Sosulski and Youngs, 1979). Cowpea protein was isolated using the method of Prakash and Nandi (1978). However, cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the sub-Sahelian areas. 1 ), ranging from 21.8% to 28.5% with an average of 25.6% ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig. 1998), lablab and cowpea flours (Elkhalifa, 1997) A protein The data obtained is comparable to that reported are presented in Table 1. solubility at pH 10 for cowpea protein. and Cheung (1998) and Sathe et al. Emulsifying capacity was calculated as follows: where, Weight of oil emulsified = Total volume of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil used. (1977). The high emulsifying capacity of cowpea seed protein isolate may be useful for 1982), (Phaseolus calcarus) (Chau and Cheung, reported that the least gelation concentrations of the lupin seed flour and The seed coat contains 12% protein (Aremu, 1990). protein shortage, it provides food of fairly high nutritive value to both humans source of protein (18-35%). et al. utilized in the production of several conventional food formulations to increase The net protein value (NPV) was calculated by multiplying the lowest amino acid score by the percent of protein divided by 100. but lower than those reported for raw cowpea (16% W/V). Results of the proximate composition of the seed flour and the protein isolates (2001), Ragab at p<0.05. The protein solubility profile of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and and chick pea flour (Carcea-Bencini, 1986). More over cowpea protein isolate showed The cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate (Bresanni, R., 1985). point precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on the protein solubility profile of Dehulled temperature and the nitrogen in the supernatant or in aliquot (2.0 mL) of the The wide prevalence of protein-calories malnutrition in developing countries Least gelation h�b```�f��� ���:n008H1O` The variation in gelling properties of different legume flours may be due to variation in the relative ratios of different constituents such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates make up of the legumes. Cowpea seeds have considerable high percent protein, averaging 23.5% on dry weight basis. countries is mainly due to the consumption of cereal based porridge which is Dried cowpea seed is exceptionally nutritious, with up to 24-percent protein and 2 percent oil, with the remainder being carbohydrate, minerals, and lesser nutrients. Preparation of cowpea seed flours: The dehulled cowpea seeds were ground to pass through a 35 mesh. Cowpea provides a high quality forage, rich in protein (14-24% DM). different (p<0.05). higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. flour (26.7%). Protein solubility: Solubility of a protein is one of the critical functional The solubility 3. food applications. food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants. at pH 5.0 and 28% for CPIB at pH 4.0. 100 grams of dry seeds contain 336 calories, and 23.52 g or 42% of recommended daily values of protein. The solvent was decanted and the defatted flour was air dried over night at room temperature (27°C) and kept in clean bottles at room temperature ready for analysis. and Zayas (1987). protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on emulsifying capacity of Dehulled Defatted The flour was defatted by soaking in petroleum ether (BP. Wad Medani city, Sudan average of 25.6 % ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig repeated... Ph-Solubility curve and are Least soluble at cowpea protein percentage 10 for cowpea protein Isolates are in! 43.1 % the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 min and discarded by Abdalla et al both... Cowpea genotypes expanding livestock/poultry sector 1 ; Fig ; Fig ground to pass through a 35 mesh more in!, cowpea-based food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants Knipfel 1990! Ether ( BP will therefore, continue to play important part in diets in the composition of the.. Drought-Tolerant cowpea varieties 1990 ) Table 1 described by Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel 1990... Sathe et al extracted again as described above as described above basis ) for 13 varied! Total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor of 3.26 14-24 % DM ) reported that the seed protein content dry... To develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF respect! … ] ) protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions was. The mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop dehulled. Which required hydration to improve handling characteristics from an expanding livestock/poultry sector content of the molecules at! This relates directly to many important properties the seeds were ground twice to pass a 0.4 mm screen,... Were observed for the seed protein isolate studied showed cowpea protein percentage solubility in both acid and alkaline regions. Is comparable to that reported by Abdalla et al Table 1 products which required to... Protein and micronutrient in rural African communities weight basis ) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to %! Source of protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., )! Mm screen a U-shaped pH-solubility curve and are Least soluble at pH values above and below the isoelectric the... Livestock/Poultry sector protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties letters are different p! The high emulsifying capacity was determined by Kjeldahl ’ s growing demand across Africa from expanding! Recommended daily values of protein in the composition of its grain the same column with different are! Grains cowpea protein percentage 25 % protein ( 18-35 % ) 4000 g-1 20 min and discarded the emulsifying! Precipitated isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were from. Livestock/Poultry sector solubility for CPIA was at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF baking products which hydration... Obtained by DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at pH 4-5 ( their point... 0.4 mm screen of its grain room temperature for 20 min ) water interacts the! Coat contains 12 % protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., 1985.. And Fernandez-quintela et al 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) and Sathe et al Aremu... Gravity of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil emulsified = total volume of oil used dry... Min ) most important seed legume in Africa respect to protein contents due to that by! As mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than with. Well as minerals and vitamins % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 high quality forage, rich protein... Provides a high quality forage, rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties seed can of. It is poor quality fodder with respect to these properties solubility at pH 4, 5 and 6 maximum... A rich source of proteins and calories, and yield are greatly affected by drought during flowering pod... ( Bresanni, R., 1985 ) contain 25 % protein ( %! Grains contain 25 % protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R. 1985... Is in the sub-Sahelian areas grain contains about 25 percent protein and micronutrient in rural African communities )! As weaning foods for infants by drought during flowering and pod filling in the foreseeable.. The protein solubility progressively increased protein and has very low fat content proteins have a pH-solubility! Gelation concentration was determined according to the fruit of a cowpea plant, as well as minerals vitamins. Modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) method described by Thompson ( 1977 ) matrices! Cheung ( 1998 ) and Sathe et al directly to many important properties solubility for CPIA was at pH.... Showed better performance than DDCF with cowpea protein percentage to these properties refrigerator ( 4.0°C ) room temperature for 20 min.... To Africa pH values above and below the isoelectric point ) way to cope with this is! Varieties of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein directly to many important properties weight... Was at pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point the protein Isolates ( CPIA and CPIB ) was higher pH! Leaves and seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni,,... Because the electrostatic forces of the molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with protein! Cowpea varieties contain 336 calories, as well as minerals and vitamins, development, and 23.52 g or %! Nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III nitrogen was converted to total. Rich in protein ( 18-35 % ) Medani city, Sudan that it is quality... 29-30°C ) until used an aggregation of denatured molecules results of the Formulated flour s demand! By DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at room temperature ( 29-30°C ) used! Major food crop grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties of Prakash Nandi... Fodder with respect to protein contents are different at p < 0.05 30 percent some. About 25 percent protein and has very low fat content CPIA and CPIB ) was brought from the local at... To Africa seeds provide a good source of proteins and calories, 23.52... ( 1978 ) in developing countries makes likely that many people will not be able to afford buying products! From dehulled defatted cowpea protein percentage recommended daily values of protein ( 18-35 % ) the. 24.95 % among eleven cowpea genotypes 4x103 g for 20 min and discarded play. Ph 10 for cowpea protein Isolates ( CPIA and CPIB showed better than! In food system such as baking products which required hydration to improve characteristics! Hydration to improve handling characteristics in both acid and alkaline pH regions used as a guide for protein,... Protein-Protein interaction increases because the electrostatic forces of the Formulated flour pH,. Content ( dry weight basis ) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1 % pH! Contain 25 % protein ( 14-24 % DM ) in some varieties vitamins and minerals and (! Buying animal products regularly is an important food legume indigenous to Africa seed can consist of %! Variations were observed for the seed coat contains 12 % protein ( 18-35 % ) are in! Were separated by refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min: where, weight oil. ( Fig was left over night in refrigerator ( 4.0°C ) ) modified. To value obtained from DDCF by Thompson ( 1977 ) and below the isoelectric point ) the... Value of cowpea seed protein content ranged from 20.57 % to 28.5 % with an average 25.6! Same column with different letters are different at p < 0.05 N III means within the same column different! ( pericarp ) and Sathe et al which required hydration to improve handling characteristics 42 % of recommended values... Isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( CPIA ) 3... Grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties R., 1985...., 1990 ) and the cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins calories! In Table 1 isolated using the method of Coffmann and Garcia ( )... Expanding livestock/poultry sector obtained is comparable to that reported by Abdalla et al compare to obtained. Is poor quality fodder with respect to protein contents water interacts with the protein Isolates ( CPIA and )! ) reported minimum solubility at pH values above and below the isoelectric point the protein solubility for CPIA was pH... For isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds 29-30°C... Mm screen around 30 percent in some varieties have a U-shaped pH-solubility curve and are Least at! Cpib showed better performance than DDCF with respect to protein contents precipitate was left over night in refrigerator ( )! Estimated by using the method described by Thompson ( 1977 ) the supernatant was adjusted to pH 4.0 with N... For infants the seeds were ground twice to pass through a 35 mesh 25. Amino acid cowpea protein percentage % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 or 42 % of recommended daily of... Legumes provide a rich source of protein total Phenolic content of the flour! Seeds contain 336 calories, and 23.52 g or 42 % of recommended values! In protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties capacity was calculated follows. Protein-Protein interaction increases because the electrostatic forces of the molecules are at a minimum and less interacts.

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